TABLA DE CONTENIDO:
- 1 What is alopecia or baldness?
- 2 TYPES OF ALOPECIA
- 2.1 NON-SCAR ALOPECIAS
- 2.2 CICATRICIAL ALOPECIAS
- 3 AREAS AFFECTED BY ALOPECIA
- 4 CAUSES OF ALOPECIA
- 5 IS ALOPECIA OR BALDNESS A DISEASE?
- 6 HOW IS ALOPECIA CURE?
- 7 DO HOME REMEDIES FOR ALOPECIA WORK?
- 8 WHAT IS TRAUMATIC ALOPECIA?
- 9 HOW TO DIAGNOSE ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA?
- 10 DRUGS TO CONTROL ALOPECIA
- 11 TREATMENTS TO PREVENT HAIR LOSS
- 12 ULTIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR BALDNESS OR ALOPECIA
What is alopecia or baldness?
Alopecia or baldness consists of excessive hair loss. This is due to a degeneration or atrophy of the hair follicle which creates a disorder that makes hair production impossible, modifying the hair development process and causing abnormal hair loss.
A normal hair loss consists of the loss of 50 to 100 hairs a day, when the hair loss increases exaggeratedly it becomes chronic and you should go to a specialist to determine if you are suffering from baldness or alopecia, diagnose the causes in time and establish the possible treatment for alopecia according to the diagnosed cause.
Excessive hair loss or alopecia can occur on the scalp or in other areas of the body where hair is present, this is determined according to the type of alopecia present, which are classified as scarring alopecia or non-scarring lopecia .
Maybe you have wondered until now … What is alopecia? Is excessive hair loss normal? How can I prevent hair loss? What is good for hair loss? Is it normal to be young and bald? What are the causes of hair loss? Can baldness have a cure?
To answer these questions, let’s start by defining alopecia as progressive hair loss (androgenic alopecia) or sudden and definitive hair loss in some areas of the scalp or areas of the skin (alopecia areata) with no obvious cause.
The normal hair development process has three stages; anagen (hair growth), catagen phase (rest) and telogen (hair loss), per day we can lose 50 to 100 hairs and it is normal since daily the scalp produces new hair that replace the lost ones, but when this loss exceeds the normal average, you notice a decrease in the density of your hair and some spaces in specific areas where there is no hair, you may be suffering from a growth cycle disorder that is classified into:
- Anagen effluvium: It is the interruption of the hair growth phase, this is due to a disorder in the follicle that is preventing normal hair growth and development.
- Telogen Effluvium: It is the alteration of the telogen phase that produces abnormal and excessive hair loss.
Excessive hair loss is not normal, it must be remembered that in the normal stage of hair development, up to 100 hairs can be lost per day, in that sense, hair loss is considered normal, but if hair loss exceeds this average, you may be suffering from a disorder of the hair growth cycle which can lead to baldness or alopecia.
Preventing hair loss excessively is something we all want to achieve, to avoid hair loss you have to identify the cause of hair loss, what is causing or altering the normal cycle of my hair? For this, several factors that can influence must be taken into account:
- Hereditary alopecia
- Eating disorders
- Hormonal alteration
- Pregnancy status
- Postpartum stress
- Medical treatment (chemotherapy and radiation therapy)
- Chemical products
- Friction baldness
Once the cause of hair loss has been identified, we can, with the help of a specialist, find the appropriate treatment to reduce or stop hair loss and find out the possible solution to counteract the damage already caused as the case may be.
If baldness is the product of hereditary alopecia or androgenic alopecia, it may be normal for you to be bald in youth or earlier. This form of alopecia affects 70% of men of varying ages and is known as male pattern hair loss, on the other hand, a lower but no less important percentage is the one that affects 50% of women and is known as female pattern hair loss. Hair loss or androgenic alopecia can begin at any age, but it is more noticeable and progressive over the years.
BALD IN MEN
Baldness in men or male pattern hair loss can appear in men at any age, in the case of hereditary alopecia or androgenic alopecia it becomes noticeable gradually and progressively over the years. Hair loss or baldness in men occurs on the scalp or any area of the skin where there is hair. Baldness in men usually begins at the temples and on the front or top of the head and spreads backwards, causing the hairline to recede further and further.
Baldness in men is more common in white-skinned or Caucasian men, and although black men are less prone it does not mean that they cannot develop baldness.
In addition to hereditary baldness or androgenic alopecia, men can develop traumatic Alopecia, Alopecia areata, Diffuse Alopecia, Alopecia by drugs or drugs, traction alopecia, among others, for this reason to carry out a treatment against baldness a diagnosis must be issued of a specialist that allows us to determine the type of alopecia, the causes and possible solutions.
The most common symptoms to detect alopecia in men, is the scarcity of hair in parts such as the temples or called entrances, in the upper part of the head which extends backwards and the scarce production of hair in the beard and mustache.
BALDNESS IN WOMEN
Androgenic alopecia is the most common cause of baldness in women, this type of alopecia is called female pattern hair loss and affects 50% of women. The alteration of the dihydrotestosterone hormone and heredity play an important role in hair loss in women causing so-called baldness in women or alopecia in women.
Alopecia in women, in addition to being hereditary, can be caused mainly by factors such as stress, excessive use of chemical beauty treatments, unbalanced diet, pregnancy, postpartum and lactation, traction alopecia that consists of continuous and excessive tension in hairstyles and braids, alopecia due to medical treatments due to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alopecia due to the use of hormonal drugs, alopecia due to excessive use of shampoo, iron and dryer, among others.
Baldness in women or alopecia in women is noticeable in the upper part of the head causing a widening in the hair line and receding of the hairline, the hair loses strength and elasticity, it becomes weaker until it disappears. In the case of baldness in women due to alopecia areata, circular and irregular bald areas appear on the scalp. Alopecia in women affects not only the scalp but also the reduction and loss of hair in eyebrows, eyelashes and hair on the general level of the body.
Female baldness causes low self-esteem, insecurity, among other psychological conditions, especially when alopecia occurs in young women. The treatment for female alopecia is determined by the specialist who through studies will establish the cause of female baldness and the possible treatment to stop hair loss and repair the damage caused.
Baldness in young people or juvenile alopecia can occur at the beginning of puberty between the ages of 12 and 16 as a result of a hormonal change. The hormones linked to development and growth can suffer alterations producing exaggerated seborrhea, dandruff or weakness in the hair leather which causes abnormal hair loss and can cause baldness in young men and alopecia or baldness in young women.
Premature baldness in young people can be caused by other factors such as androgenic alopecia as a result of baldness inherited by their parents or grandparents. The causes of baldness in young women in addition to hormonal change can be attributed to stress, eating disorder, excessive and irregular menstruation, emotional problems, among others.
The most common symptoms of baldness in young people are: Exaggerated hair loss, a decrease in the density and thickness of the hair, baldness in some areas of the scalp, increased seborrhea on the scalp, itching and irritability in some areas of the skin.
In order to avoid baldness in young men and women, it is necessary as in all other cases, to know the real cause of the problem of juvenile baldness, when hair loss occurs abnormally, it is necessary to go to the specialist who will determine the treatment to follow to counteract hair loss.
BALDNESS IN CHILDREN
Alopecia in children or baldness in children, is generally presented by hereditary traits, metabolic disorders or hormonal problems. Childhood alopecia, although it is not very common, does not mean that it is less important. Childhood alopecia can be congenital if it occurs from birth or acquired if it occurs during the stage of its development and increases as it grows.
In most cases, hair loss in children or also known as alopecia in children, corresponds to scarring alopecia, that is, infantile alopecia can be related to different types of alopecia such as:
- Alopecia capitis: It is caused by the presence of fungi that causes flaking of the hair leather and hair loss in children.
- Alopecia areata in children: Baldness in children or alopecia areata in children, corresponds to a plaque or bald spot in some regions of the scalp which can be associated with autoimmune disorders.
- Trichotillomania: It consists of the act of pulling out hair due to an anxiety disorder that may be caused by a mental disorder. Trichotillomania can lead to hair loss in children caused by an attack of anxiety or anger. This type of alopecia in children must be treated by psychologists who allow them to work on the emotional part of the child.
Whatever the cause, alopecia in children should be treated in time like alopecia in adults and should not be downplayed believing that baldness in children is an irrelevant matter that will disappear during their growth stage. Like any disease, alopecia in children or infantile alopecia must be supervised and treated by a specialist to find the most appropriate treatment.
BALD IN NEWBORNS
On the other hand, hair loss in babies or hair loss in newborns can be normal during the first 6 months of life, since it is necessary to shed their hair which will be replaced by a thinner one.
During this stage of hair loss in babies, it is necessary for parents to monitor the scalp and other areas of skin where hair is present to control and identify a possible alteration in time avoiding an exaggerated or abnormal baldness in babies.
TYPES OF ALOPECIA
Alopecia or abnormal hair loss is mainly classified into two large groups: scarring alopecia or non-scarring alopecia. These two groups in turn are made up of various subtypes of alopecia. The types of alopecia in women are very similar to the types of alopecia in men.
Both the types of female alopecia and the types of male alopecia are included in scarring or non-scarring alopecia. The types of alopecia and their causes, as well as their classification is determined by a specialist along with their treatment.
Alopecia in children, as well as alopecia in newborns, is included in the types of alopecia either scarring or non-scarring alopecia, although in most cases it is more common for alopecia in children to be classified as alopecia non-scarring.
Non-scarring alopecia (non-scarring alopecia) includes the most common alopecia and differs from scarring alopecia, because these, although they cause hair loss, do not mean destruction or loss of the hair follicle, that is, although the birth phase , hair growth and development is being disturbed the follicle remains intact.
In scarring alopecia, if the cause of the alopecia can be determined, there is a possibility of recovery and of reversing the damage caused by baldness. For this, it is necessary to determine the factors that influence hair loss, the type of scarring alopecia that the patient presents and the treatment to follow to obtain positive results.
Non-scarring alopecia includes the following types of alopecia:
ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA (ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA):
Androgenic alopecia or androgenetic alopecia is the most common type of alopecia among people who suffer from baldness or abnormal hair loss. Androgenic alopecia is also known as common alopecia or common baldness and it is estimated that 95% of people who suffer from baldness are caused by this type of alopecia.
Androgenic alopecia causes excessive hair loss due to hereditary, genetic and hormonal problems. Androgenetic alopecia can affect more than 70% of men and is known as male pattern hair loss and in the case of androgenic alopecia in women it affects 50% and is known as female pattern hair loss.
In the case of men, androgenic alopecia is most noticeable on the temples and on the front of the head, causing a bald spot on the upper part that extends towards the back. The absence of hair is more noticeable in the case of men who have had hair loss from a young age and it has lasted throughout their lives.
On the other hand, in the case of androgenic alopecia in women, the absence of hair becomes more noticeable in the upper part of the dividing line of the head, which is why it widens and the decrease in the amount and thickness of the hair is noticeable. Until considerable absent hair spaces were observed on the scalp.
To detect if you are suffering from androgenic alopecia it is necessary to identify its phases, so that it can be treated in time and reduce the affectation.
Androgenic alopecia presents the following phases:
- In the initial phase, hair loss is minimal but constant. The patient begins to notice permanent hair loss, but since it is not exaggerated hair loss, he does not pay attention.
- In the second phase, the density of the hair is noticeable, the hair becomes weak and falls out easily. In this phase, some men notice the so-called entrances, which consists of the absence of hair on the front of the head, more specifically on the temples. They still have hair in this part, but its density has noticeably decreased.
- In phase three and four, androgenic alopecia has caused baldness in specific parts of the scalp. In the case of men, baldness is present on the front and side of the head, on the crown and spreads throughout the head. In the case of women, baldness causes the hairline to widen due to the lack of hair, it can also present baldness on the front of the head, on the eyebrows and eyelashes.
To establish if androgenic alopecia is curable, the specialist doctor must make a diagnosis to determine the severity of the condition and the sequelae present in the scalp and in the hair follicle. The possible hair treatment to be carried out may include the application of topical medications such as minoxidil, oral medications such as finasteride pills to stop hair loss and hair implant as a definitive solution in areas where baldness is present. This measure of hair implant is the only definitive option for the recovery of hair in areas where there is baldness, since when performing a hair graft, new hair follicles are transferred to the area where there is no hair, which will make new hair grow and solve the problem of baldness permanently in the area where the hair graft was performed.
Traumatic alopecia is hair loss caused by traumatic events that have caused the hair strand and hair follicle to detach in a sudden and unexpected way.
Among the most common causes of traumatic alopecia are those caused by:
- Traction: It consists of the shedding of hair caused by the constant use of braids, hairstyles, pigtails, bows and any type of object that subjects the hair to an exaggerated tension. Traction alopecia is very common considering beauty standards and popularity.
- Pressure: Pressure alopecia consists of constant rubbing of the hair, especially when lying down for a long time. It is usually caused mostly in babies by constant rubbing on the pillow.
- Trichotillomania: Trichotillomania is the habit of voluntarily pulling out your hair as a result of an episode of stress, nerves, anxiety or anger. This type of disorder may be more common in children, although it also occurs in adults at a time of psychological stress. Trichotillomania may go unnoticed initially, but as it becomes a constant habit, the effect it has caused by producing baldness in some areas of the scalp will be noticed. To cure this type of disorder, psychological therapy should be started and with the help of a specialist, establish the appropriate treatment to recover hair in the areas affected by trichotillomania.
The most common symptoms of traumatic alopecia is hair shedding without an apparent cause, after making a diagnosis the specialist will determine if this is the cause of baldness in the patient, ruling out other types of alopecia.
The treatment for this type of alopecia will be determined taking into account whether the cause is due to traction, pressure or trichotillomania. Once the cause of traumatic alopecia has been identified, the most effective cure will be sought and the necessary treatment will begin.
ALOPECIA AREATA :
Alopecia areata is a disease of the immune system that attacks the scalp and destroys hair follicles for no apparent reason, causing sudden and abrupt hair loss, creating patchy baldness in some areas of the body, especially the leather. scalp.
This type of alopecia is totally different from the others since, unlike the others, alopecia areata is caused by the body itself without external agents, as an autoimmune reaction that attacks its own body, especially the capillary tissues and produces baldness.
The causes that cause the immune system to attack itself and cause alopecia areata are still unknown and are under constant study.
Treatment to counteract alopecia areata depends a lot on the progression of the disease, the specialist may choose to use topical medications such as minoxidil, oral medications such as finasteride or corticosteroids accompanied by other therapies, but as it is due to a disease caused by the immune system effectiveness is not guaranteed. Home treatments to cure alopecia areata are not convenient nor do they guarantee any type of improvement.
Alopecia areata can affect both men, women and children, causing great fear in people diagnosed with this type of alopecia. Especially in women and girls, alopecia areata causes psychological damage, emotional problems, low self-esteem, insecurity, among others. The use of a wig is the most recommended since the hair graft is not an option considering that the tissue in the area is dead and does not guarantee the permanence of the implanted follicle.
Alopecia areata can occur on the scalp, beard, eyebrows and in any part of the body where hair is present, it is important to clarify that it is not contagious, since it is an autoimmune disease caused by the body that affects only those who have it. suffers.
This type of alopecia is more generalized and causes gradual and non-localized hair loss. Diffuse alopecia can be moderate or intense in some people, this is because during the growth cycle the new hair becomes thinner and weaker, which causes this phase to progressively shorten until the hair disappears. This process is known as miniaturization.
Diffuse female alopecia is very common and may be related to female androgenic alopecia, which causes a decrease in capillary density, especially in the central part of the head, causing the hair to become shorter and weaker until it detaches from the follicle and falls. This type of alopecia in women can be a cause for concern, but it must be taken into account that the damage can be reversible through the treatment recommended by the specialist.
Both diffuse alopecia in women and male alopecia can be treated and counteracted through treatments that include changes in diet, use of topicals, use of oral and injected medications that stimulate the growth and strengthening of the scalp. The appropriate treatment will be determined by the specialist after identifying the cause of alopecia.
Some of the most common symptoms that can identify diffuse alopecia are:
- Decreased hair density
- Shorter, brittle and weak hair
- Shortage of hair in some areas of the scalp
- Hair shedding before the end of its growth phase
In most cases, diffuse alopecia has a cure since we are treating a type of reversible alopecia, which affects the hair but not the hair follicle responsible for hair production. To identify the cure it is necessary to identify the cause and the appropriate treatment to follow.
Among the most common causes of diffuse alopecia are:
- Thyroid disorders
- Hormonal changes
- Poor diet
- Lack of exercise
- Drug use
As we have mentioned before, to find the cure for diffuse alopecia it is necessary to identify the cause and establish the appropriate treatment.
Hereditary alopecia is a type of baldness inherited by parents and / or grandparents. In many cases from a very young age there are signs that hereditary baldness is going to occur, but this type of alopecia must be determined through a diagnosis made by a specialist.
Once hereditary alopecia is diagnosed, it should not necessarily be assumed that the child will be bald like his father or grandfather, today we have many treatments that can help counteract hair loss and stop baldness, we also offer definitive solutions such as the hair graft that will allow to repopulate the areas already affected.
Among the hereditary alopecia syndromes we can find:
- Congenital atrichia: Congenital atrichia syndrome is the cause of deformed hair follicles causing disturbance in the normal cycle of hair development and preventing the growth phases from being fulfilled. This can lead to baldness in some localized areas or entirely on the scalp.
- Temporary triangular alopecia: The cause of this condition has not been diagnosed until now, it consists of the appearance of baldness in a small area of the scalp, characterized by its triangular or oval shape which can be permanent and definitive with total absence of hair in the area or a barely noticeable hair.
It should be noted that triangular alopecia is not progressive and total but localized, so perform a hair implant in the affected area is the effective and definitive solution.
- Loose anagen hair syndrome: This type of hereditary alopecia consists specifically of hair loss when it is in the anagen phase, caused by the weakness of the hair which is released from the hair follicle before completing its normal development cycle. Hair loss caused by anagen hair syndrome especially affects girls from their early years through adolescence. This type of syndrome is closely related to female diffuse alopecia, which causes a fraction of the hair to shed before completing its development cycle. Until now, there is no specific treatment for diffuse female alopecia and loose anagen hair syndrome, but like other types of alopecia, the use of minoxidil, finasteride and as a definitive solution the hair implant in the affected areas.
- Anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: It is a type of disease that is characterized by the abnormal development of ectodermal tissues that affects dental development, affects the production of sweat glands and produces baldness. To stop baldness caused by anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia, it is necessary to treat the disease accompanied by an external treatment that allows hair to recover in the affected areas.
- Monilethrix : It is a type of hereditary alopecia which causes a mutation in the genes and an alteration in the components of the hair, specifically in the keratin of the hair, causing the hair to become brittle and break easily, causing hair loss.
- Steely hair syndrome or Menkes disease : This type of hereditary alopecia is caused by mutations in the gene that produces the protein in the body and is responsible for controlling the amount of copper in the bloodstream. When altered, the increase in copper accumulates in the blood and body tissues causing alterations in the hair, brain, liver and bones.
- Trichorrhinophalangeal syndrome: It is a rare genetic disease that causes short stature, abnormal fingers and toes, sparse hair, a misshapen nose, and irregularly short fingers.
- Cartilage hair hypoplasia: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a hereditary disease that, like the previous syndromes, causes alopecia due to a deficiency of the immune system. In addition, this disease is accompanied by dwarfism causing the upper and lower limbs of the person to be shorter than normal.
In a person suffering from this disease, the hair will become weak, very thin and its growth is slow, causing alopecia in most cases.
- Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome : It is a hereditary disease that is normally transmitted from parents to children. It is rare and causes brain atrophy, imbalance, mental and physical retardation, abnormalities in the development of the sexual organs, loss of sight, short stature, among other characteristics of the disease.
This syndrome in addition to altering the main functions of the body, causing hair loss which produces alopecia from childhood, becoming worse over the years.
Hereditary alopecia should be treated only after a diagnosis has been made, which allows the type of syndrome that causes it to be identified. In several cases, like diffuse alopecia, the damage is reversible, although it does not apply to all cases. A good treatment and monitoring of the disease can bring improvements in the affected areas, although the definitive solution will always be the hair implant that allows to repopulate the areas affected by baldness.
ALOPECIA OF SYSTEMATIC DISEASES:
Alopecia caused by systemic diseases can be endocrine or infectious in origin. The systemic lupus erythematosus It is one of the most common and chronic systematic diseases since it is the immune system itself, upon detecting the infection, that attacks the tissues and organisms of the body, causing damage to the skin, the heart, the kidneys and the brain. On the scalp, hair loss increases, producing baldness in specific areas or, on some occasions, total hair loss.
In some cases, lupus alopecia can be moderate or chronic depending on the development of the disease and the treatment received. By controlling the lupus disease, treatments can be started that allow the recovery of the hair or the hair graft as a definitive solution in areas where there are no longer healthy follicles that allow hair growth and development.
DRUG OR DRUG ALOPECIAS:
Some drugs or drugs, due to their chemical composition, can be the cause of the increase in hair loss in a constant way, leading to baldness.
Among the drugs known to cause alopecia are:
- Antithyroid: They are used to treat hyperthyroidism- Among the most common is carbimazole or thiouracil.
- Anticancer Drugs : They are cytotoxic substances supplied to cause damage to cancer cells, seeking to prevent these cells from growing and dividing and increasing the size of tumors. As it is not selective, these types of substances are distributed throughout the body, causing damage to all cells in the body. Chemotherapy is a technique that consists of the administration of chemical substances that seeks to destroy cancer cells causing hair loss and alopecia. Once the treatment is suspended, the hair comes out again, although it is necessary to help the hair growth process with medications for oral and topical use, as well as with a good diet.
- Vitamin A: In large doses, drugs with an excessive load of vitamin A can cause alopecia.
- Anticoagulants: They are medicines used to prevent blood clotting. On many occasions they are responsible for increasing hair loss and producing alopecia.
- Valproic acid or sodium valproate: It is a drug used for the treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, bipolar disorder, mood stabilizer, migraine prophylaxis, manic episodes, among others. Some of its contraindications is hypersensitivity to the drug which can cause a negative response from the body. Among the side effects it produces is alopecia.
Alopecia caused by the use of drugs or drugs in most cases disappears when the use of drugs is discontinued. If the use of the drugs is of temporary use, there is a greater possibility of recovering the hair, although if the use of these is formulated for definitive use in the patient, other options should be sought that allow the recovery of the hair or the reduction of hair loss. .
Scarring alopecias are those alopecia that have occurred as a result of damage from a scalp disease, trauma from injury or burn, which has caused a destruction or malformation of the hair follicle and replaced by scar tissue which causes a irreversible damage to hair tissues.
Scarring alopecia can be divided into primary scarring alopecia or secondary scarring alopecia . Primary scarring alopecia is caused by hereditary factors or by alterations in development, autoimmune conditions, fungal and bacterial infections. In the case of secondary scarring alopecia, it is mainly due to trauma such as wounds, burns and surgeries.
Depending on the group to which they belong, scarring alopecia can be divided by:
Hereditary diseases :
Among the hereditary diseases that can cause scarring alopecia as they directly affect the skin and scalp are: Scarring alopecia Lupus, Epidermolysis bullosa , Darier’s disease , Epidermal nevus , Congenital aplasia cutis , Ichthyosis , Mibelli’s porokeratosis , Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome .
Although most of these diseases can be evident from birth, others on the contrary develop and manifest during the different stages of growth of the child until adolescence.
These skin diseases can be acquired by fungi and bacteria that directly affect the skin and scalp.
Some infectious diseases such as Favus or also called tinea favicica, affects the entire scalp and is considered a variety of tina capitis causing permanent hair loss. The Favus produces an inflammation in the hair follicle accompanied by a flaking of the scalp.
The Querion de Celso, which is considered another infectious disease that affects the skin and scalp, manifests itself in a similar way to Favus, causing inflammation in the capillary tissues, forming pus in each of the holes of the hair follicles that eventually leave a scab causing permanent hair loss in the affected area.
In the case of candidal folliculitis, considered an infectious disease, it is rare and occurs mainly in people addicted to heroin, which can cause a serious infection as a result of the administration of intravenous substances. This infection affects the hair follicles producing definitive baldness in areas of the body such as the scalp, beard and areas full of hair, causing inflammation and abscesses.
Other infectious or bacterial diseases that can cause scarring alopecia are: Tuberculosis, herpes, leprosy and syphilis.
Neoplastic diseases :
They are diseases that cause the creation of abnormal masses or tumors produced by cells that multiply in a constant and uncontrolled way. These tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).
Some of the most common neoplastic diseases are:
- Basal cell carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma is the most common representation of skin cancer. The tumor originates from cells of the basal germinative stratum, which is the last layer of the epidermis , hence its name basalioma. It is the most frequent skin tumor and among all its consequences is baldness due to scarring alopecia. Among the causes that cause this type of neoplastic disease is the hereditary gene, excessive exposure to ultraviolet sunlight, exposure to carcinogenic chemicals or a diet low in antioxidants.
- Squamous cell epithelioma : It is a malignant tumor in which skin cells increase in an uncontrolled way creating malformations in the form of warts and ulcerations. This type of malformation originates from cancerous sequelae, burns or old wounds that did not heal correctly, giving shape to tumors over the years. When this type of neoplastic disease occurs, the hair in the affected area is detached, producing temporary or permanent alopecia.
- Lymphoma: Lymphomas are a group of neoplasms that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, producing solid tumors that are very similar to leukemia. Among the damage caused to the body and the immune system, there is alopecia caused by this type of disease, which can manifest itself on the scalp or in all areas where hair is present.
- Metastasis: Metastasis is the process by which cancer cells spread to organs other than the one in which the tumor started, causing the disease to spread throughout the body and damage more difficult to control. As the disease spreads in the body, it causes damage to internal organs and tissues, including hair tissues, causing alopecia, which in many cases can be definitive.
- Skin adnexal tumors: These types of tumors originate from the skin attachments; hairs, nails, sweat glands or sebaceous glands and can be benign or malignant causing deformation in the area. In the case of hair, the most common skin adnexal tumor is the trichoepithelioma which consists of a malformation of the hair follicle, which can affect one or more follicles causing baldness.
Dermatitis e It is a very common and chronic dermatological disease that affects the skin causing scaling, redness and inflammation where there are many sebaceous glands. Dermatitis on the scalp is common, obstructing the sebaceous glands and causing seborrheic dermatitis that causes alopecia. This type of alopecia is more frequent in men than in women and children and the average age of its appearance is between 30 and 50 years. Among the most common causes of seborrheic dermatitis are the hereditary gene, stress, anemia and other hormonal disorders. To carry out an effective treatment for this type of dermatitis, the cause that causes it must be known, likewise the specialist must take into account the chronic nature of alopecia and the damage caused.
Decaying clinical syndromes:
They are disorders in which small areas of irreversible scarring alopecia appear with no apparent cause that causes hair loss. These balding areas are usually surrounded by other areas of normal-looking hair. Among the most well-known descalvating clinical syndromes are: Fibrosing frontal alopecia, Erosive pustular dermatitis, Pseudopelade of Brocq, Decalvating folliculitis and Alopecia parvimaculata. A meticulous diagnosis will be able to identify the type of syndrome that is suffered and the possible treatment to counteract and stop hair loss and the appearance of new bare spots.
AREAS AFFECTED BY ALOPECIA
Alopecia is a type of disease that causes hair loss in a certain area of the body or in different areas where hair is present. Each type of alopecia has peculiar characteristics and causes baldness in a specific area locally or totally and generally depending on the type of alopecia you suffer from.
We will mention some of the most common types of alopecia and the specific areas of baldness that it causes.
- Androgenic alopecia: This type of alopecia is the most common and affects mostly men, although it can also occur in women.
In the case of men, the bald area becomes more noticeable on the front, at the recesses and crown, increasing the bald area to almost the entire upper part of the head. The man will keep hair on the top of the ears and on the nape of the neck.
- Alopecia Areata: The alopecia area is characterized by having the shape of rounded bald patches that can occur in specific areas such as the entire scalp (total alopecia areata) or on the body (universal alopecia areta).
- Fibrosing frontal alopecia: This type of alopecia, unlike androgenic, affects mostly women and is noticeable by causing hair loss in the frontal area of the head. Falling hair in the front causes the hair growth line to recede, leaving an area of noticeable baldness.
- Diffuse alopecia: This type of alopecia causes hair loss in random areas of the head. Unlike alopecia areata, diffuse alopecia does not occur in the form of rounded patches but in the gradual miniaturization of the hair follicle, which causes hair loss in an imperceptible way, since as the hair becomes thinner and thinner, baldness is highlighted. .
ALOPECIA IN EYEBROWS:
The number of hairs in each eyebrow ranges from 500 to 600 hairs and measures around 2 cm, although it is determined by the characteristics of the person.
The eyebrows in addition to protecting the eye from sweat, rain and direct sunlight, provide harmony to the face, frame the look, being one of the elements that most gives personality and beauty to the face. Hence the concern of many, especially women when they notice that their eyebrows lose density and the hairs become brittle, which causes them to detach easily until they produce alopecia in the eyebrows.
The first thing we must do is establish the cause of the alopecia in the eyebrows, if it is because of an alopecia already diagnosed, the treatment that allows to stop the damage must be established. As a solution to recover hair in the eyebrow area, products that stimulate hair growth are used, but when the loss of the follicle is permanent we recommend the hair implant that allows to graft follicles in the bald area and repopulate the affected area.
Alopecia areata is one of the most chronic alopecia that can affect the eyebrows since it consists of a sudden and irreversible loss of hair. If alopecia areata on the eyebrows has been diagnosed, it is necessary to start a treatment against the disease to prevent it from spreading and worsening in the other areas that still remain healthy.
ALOPECIA IN BEARD:
Beard alopecia that affects men manifests itself with hair loss in the chin, chin, cheeks and neck area. When density is lost and hair scarcity is denoted, it can be related to diffuse alopecia, although in many cases it goes unnoticed by the shaving process and some men choose to make changes in the implements and products they use for this process, considering them as the cause of hair loss.
In the case of alopecia areata in the beard, the loss of hair is not generalized but localized, and it becomes visible through patches or small circles of baldness that can expand throughout the affected area.
Alopecia in the beard of men in some cases does not require treatment and disappears as the days go by, however, in some cases the alopecia becomes more aggressive and chronic and requires intensive treatment that allows the affected area to recover and counteract the damage.
Among the most common causes of beard alopecia are:
- Genetic factor
- Drug and drug use
- Unbalanced diet
- Exposure to chemicals
Among the recommendations to combat baldness in beard should be taken into account:
- Have a balanced diet
- Exercise and rest routine to reduce stress level
- Maintain good hygiene on the hair, scalp and implements used
- Stop using psychoactive substances
- Identify the drugs that can cause hair loss and consult with the specialist
- Use of topicals that stimulate hair growth
ALOPECIA IN THE FRONTAL AREA OF THE HEAD (FRONT):
Fibrosing frontal alopecia is the most common type of frontal alopecia that causes permanent hair loss, causing frontal baldness as a result of an inflammatory process in the hair follicles that ends up destroying them.
Fibrosing frontal alopecia is more common in women than in men and causes hair loss from the forehead to the back and on the sides of the head, simulating a headband. In many cases the damage is irreversible and causes a scar on the scalp.
Frontal baldness in women causes low self-esteem, insecurity and affects their social, work and family life. For this reason, detecting this type of alopecia in time can be definitive to start a treatment in time to counteract the damage and stop baldness. Some of the initial symptoms of fibrosing frontal alopecia are:
- Decreased hair density on the eyebrows
- Progressive hair loss on the front of the head
- Redness of the forehead and cheeks
- Appearance of pimples on the face and forehead
Among the causes that cause alopecia on the forehead or frontal baldness, hormonal, genetic, autoimmune and environmental factors must be taken into account. Although the determining factor that causes frontal alopecia has not been definitive, it is known that this type of alopecia originates in the immune system, which attacks the hair follicles, causing inflammation and destruction.
Treatment to neutralize the damage and stop hair loss should be established after diagnosing the cause of alopecia or frontal baldness. Once the disease has been treated, a process of restoration of the affected area should be started, in case the damage is irreversible and the frontal alopecia is definitive, the pertinent study will be started to carry out a hair graft where healthy follicles are transplanted into baldness until it is repopulated.
CAUSES OF ALOPECIA
Many people wonder what causes alopecia? What are the causes of hair loss in women? What causes alopecia areata? Does alopecia have a cure?
To answer these questions, it must be clarified that the causes of alopecia can vary depending on the type of alopecia that occurs. For example, the causes of androgenic alopecia are different from those of alopecia areata and scarring alopecia. (see description of each type) Each one due to its own characteristics is caused by different main factors, although in some cases there are secondary factors that influence most types of alopecia.
Among the secondary factors that can influence most alopecia and that can exacerbate the disease, are:
- Hereditary factors
- Hormonal changes
- Drug use
- Unbalanced diet
- Environmental factors
The cause of alopecia in women, in addition to the factors already related, can be given as a result of beauty treatments that include chemical products that weaken the hair strand and the hair follicle, causing the weakening of the hair, which becomes brittle and brittle, and as a consequence it causes hair loss before completing its normal development cycle.
Traction alopecia is considered another cause of hair loss in women, where hair is subjected to continuous and excessive tension in hairstyles and braids.
Among the most common causes of hair loss in men is the hereditary factor as the main cause of alopecia in men. Additionally, the secondary factors described above must be taken into account.
IS ALOPECIA OR BALDNESS A DISEASE?
Alopecia in any of its types is considered a disease since it causes a mild or acute alteration of the body. This alteration or disorder can be internal or external and interrupts their normal functioning and development.
Alopecia is a disease that affects mainly the hair and its structure, it includes affectation of the capillary tissues, the hair follicle, the hair and even the sebaceous glands.
In some types of alopecia, the damage is superficial and causes temporary hair loss. After a treatment, the hair recovers and the disease disappears. In the case of scarring alopecia, the damage is deeper and more aggressive, causing irreversible damage in many cases, since the hair follicle responsible for hair growth is irretrievably destroyed. In these cases, definitive solutions such as the hair implant where new and healthy follicles are grafted from a donor area in bald areas where the disease has caused the destruction of the follicles and the natural birth of new hair is not expected.
Alopecia disease can affect men, women and children, although it is more common in adults, juvenile alopecia is a disease that has gained strength in recent years due to exposures to chemical substances, poor nutrition, consumption of psychoactive substances , stress and hormonal disorders.
Common symptoms of both female and male alopecia disease include:
- Gradual and progressive hair loss
- Hair becomes weak and brittle
- Missing hair spaces appear
- Flaking areas on the scalp and other areas of the body
- Decreased hair density in eyebrows and beard
Although these symptoms are general, they can vary depending on the type of alopecia that is suffered. In some cases the symptoms go unnoticed since the change is gradual and almost imperceptible, while in more aggressive alopecia the changes are radical and surprising, so that the patient perceives them when the disease has already caused serious and in some cases irreparable damage. .
Baldness went from being considered a merely aesthetic problem to being a disease that affects the physical and mental health of those who suffer from it. Today there are various treatments to counteract the disease of alopecia, but it is necessary to identify the main cause and the state of progress of the disease to start the appropriate treatment to control and reduce hair loss, as well as the recovery of the areas affected by alopecia.
HOW IS ALOPECIA CURE?
Does alopecia have a cure? How is baldness cured? These are some of the questions that most concern people who suffer from some type of alopecia. To determine if there is a cure, the type of alopecia, its causes, its characteristics, its degree of progress, among other factors, must be identified. Identifying the type of alopecia will allow you to start a treatment as soon as possible to stop hair loss and recover, if possible, the areas affected by baldness.
Although there is no universal cure for all alopecia, in the particular case of androgenic alopecia, diffuse alopecia and the different types of non-scarring alopecia the hair implant It is a permanent solution for these types of alopecia, allowing the hair to recover in the affected areas; For other types of alopecia, preventive treatments are used, hair mesotherapy , hair gymnastics or platelet rich plasma .
It must be remembered that non-scarring alopecia such as: androgenic alopecia, traumatic alopecia, Alopecia areata, diffuse alopecia, alopecia due to hereditary syndromes, alopecia due to systematic diseases and alopecia caused by drugs or drugs, cause hair loss due to different factors and each one has specific characteristics and treatment. However, these types of alopecia do not mean a definitive or irreversible destruction or loss of the hair follicle, that is, people who suffer from a type of non-scarring alopecia, through a treatment recommended by a specialist, one of the most effective is the hair implant Through this procedure you can find a cure that helps in the recovery of hair in the area where baldness occurs.
There are treatments and lifestyle changes that can help offset and reduce hair loss, although they cannot be considered a definitive cure for alopecia. Among the most common are:
- Healthy diet
- Stress reduction
- Good hygiene in affected areas
- Use of topicals like minoxidil
- Use of medications such as finasteride
- Hair graft in the affected areas
In the case of scarring alopecia such as: Alopecia due to hereditary diseases, due to infectious diseases, due to neoplastic diseases, dermatoses or clinical decalvating syndromes, the cure for baldness is less likely since these types of alopecia cause a destruction or malformation of the hair follicle , replacing the area with scar tissue which causes irreversible damage to the capillary tissues.
DO HOME REMEDIES FOR ALOPECIA WORK?
Taking into account that alopecia in its different types is a disease that originates from another pathology, mainly the immune system, it is necessary for the specialist to identify the type of alopecia and the cause that causes it, seeking an effective medical treatment for counteract and repair the damage caused by alopecia.
For this reason, although much is said about home remedies to cure alopecia, treatments with natural products have not been able to demonstrate their effectiveness in solving or alleviating baldness, since in most cases its use is external where it is not. It is the origin of the problem but the consequences of the disease, being so, home remedies do not provide benefits for the treatment of alopecia.
Although home remedies are not recommended as curative treatments due to their ineffectiveness against the disease, some people, especially women, use home remedies to prevent baldness as a preventive treatment with good results.
WHAT IS TRAUMATIC ALOPECIA?
Traumatic alopecia is a type of non-scarring alopecia that consists of hair loss caused by traumatic events where the hair is subjected to traction or pressure causing it to detach from the follicle in a sudden and unexpected way. Hair loss is caused by exaggerated tension in the case of the use of braids, hairstyles and buns (traction) or by the constant rubbing of the hair on a surface (pressure).
Another cause of traumatic alopecia is tricholomania, which consists of the habit of voluntarily pulling hair out as a result of an episode of stress, nerves, anxiety or anger. To cure this type of disorder, psychological therapy should be started and with the help of a specialist, establish the appropriate treatment to regain hair in the areas affected by trichotillomania.
The treatment for this type of alopecia will be determined by the specialist taking into account whether the cause is due to traction, pressure or trichotillomania. Once the cause of traumatic alopecia has been identified, the necessary treatment will begin, seeking the gradual and progressive restoration of the affected area.
The cure for traumatic alopecia is determined by identifying the pattern that causes it, after remedying the cause that originates the traumatic alopecia, a treatment will be started to recover hair in the affected areas, in most non-scarring alopecia the procedure of hair transplant It is the most effective and with more studies to back it up.
HOW TO DIAGNOSE ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA?
How can I detect androgenetic alopecia early? To detect alopecia you must monitor your hair loss, that is, it is normal that during the day you lose 50 to 100 hairs, but when you notice that this figure increases and you leave hair on the pillow, bathroom, and in general throughout the house, you should start a thorough review of your hair and scalp that allows you to identify any abnormalities. When you see that hair loss is exaggerated and not temporary but constant, you should go to an expert to make a specialized diagnosis.
Detecting alopecia in women is a little faster, as women are more careful and pay attention to changes and signals in their body. In addition to this, constantly performing hair treatments is beneficial as it allows them to be more attentive to their hair. Something different happens in most men, who do not pay much attention to the condition of their hair or the changes they present, and discover alopecia when it has already left obvious signs.
In any of the situations, to make a correct diagnosis of androgenic alopecia, you should go to a specialist who performs a microscopic monitoring of the characteristics of baldness, as well as its behavior and progress. During each session the specialist will carefully review the structure of the hair and the follicle, as well as the variability of the size of the alopecia. Thanks to this technology, the patient can be sure of the type of alopecia and the treatment to be carried out.
The early detection of androgenic alopecia, as well as in the different types of alopecia, will allow to start a treatment in the initial stage of the disease that will be able to stop and counteract the damage that it may cause in the patient, establishing faster recovery opportunities, since most of the consultants go to a specialist when there is already significant damage, with which preventive treatments are not as effective and procedures such as hair graft or also called hair transplant .
In conclusion, detecting androgenic alopecia early can slow down the progression of the disease and initiate a faster and more effective recovery process.
DRUGS TO CONTROL ALOPECIA
Among the most used alopecia medications are:
- MINOXIDIL: It is a drug used regularly for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Its use is topical, and it has been shown to be effective in stimulating hair growth. Although it is true that approximately 40% of men who have used minoxidil have evidenced capillary regeneration causing moderate hair growth, its efficacy has not been confirmed in all cases or in the treatment of other types of alopecia.
Among the medications for baldness, minoxidil is the best known and used by men and women. Although initially its use was exclusively for men who wanted to restore hair in bald areas, as well as increase the growth of beard and body hair, today it is one of the most widely used medicines for alopecia in women.
Although it provides benefits in stimulating hair growth and development, minoxidil as a medicine used for alopecia if used inappropriately has a number of side effects:
- Skin irritation
- Temporary hair loss
- Causes hair growth in areas where it is not applied
- Dizziness or headache
All medications for male and female baldness must be formulated by a specialist who, after a hair diagnosis, will determine the daily amount of minoxidil to use, as well as the correct way to do it.
- FINASTERIDE: It is an antiandrogenic drug that limits and obstructs the function of androgens, preventing or suppressing the biological effects of hormones. It is used as a medicine for the treatment of androgenic alopecia or male baldness, since this type of alopecia causes excessive hair loss due to hereditary, genetic and hormonal disorders. Finasteride blocks hair loss by blocking the production of hormones that stop hair growth.
Finasteride is considered an effective oral drug to treat androgenic alopecia, the dose and time of treatment should be recommended by a specialist taking into account the state and progression of the disease in the patient.
This drug was initially created to treat male pattern baldness for its antiandrogenic effects, although some women have been motivated to use it as a drug for female alopecia.
Among the side effects caused by the use of finasteride as a medicine for alopecia are:
- Abnormal ejaculation
- Alteration of sexual function
- Abnormal breast growth in men
- Pain in the testicles
- Drug dependency
- Reversible effects when suspending its use
Medications used for alopecia whether topical, oral or injectable cause some type of adverse reaction and side effects taking into account their components that seek to counteract the damage caused by alopecia and hormonally stimulate hair growth. The definitive solution for baldness, which does not produce negative side effects is known as hair implant or hair graft and it is used effectively in the recovery of hair in the areas affected by the majority of non-scarring alopecia, this procedure consists of the extraction of hair follicles from a donor area of the same patient and the hair implantation in the area where baldness occurs. The hair graft It is a safe method in which medications or drugs are not supplied but a hair transplant , which should only be performed with a professional in the area who must have all the necessary equipment to perform the procedure.
TREATMENTS TO PREVENT HAIR LOSS
When we talk about how to avoid alopecia, we must bear in mind that alopecia such as alopecia areata, hereditary and infectious, are not preventable and appear suddenly. However, taking into account some recommendations in our lifestyle will not only benefit the whole body and the immune system but also our hair. Some of the recommendations that we must take into account are:
- Maintain a balanced diet
- Get regular exercise
- Manage stress and anxiety levels
- Carry out proper hygiene to the hair and scalp
- Avoid subjecting the hair to exaggerated tension and constant rubbing
- Avoid using chemicals on the hair
- Stop using products that cause irritation or redness to the skin and scalp.
- Carry out constant checks on the scalp, skin and areas where there is presence of hair to identify abnormalities.
- Go to the specialist in case of observing strange reactions in the skin and scalp
For some men, avoiding hair loss is inevitable when there is a tendency to suffer from hereditary alopecia that is transmitted from generation to generation. In these cases, preventive treatments that include lifestyle changes are not enough, for this there are other aesthetic treatments that will allow the patient to stimulate hair growth and delay baldness.
Some of the aesthetic treatments are:
- CAPILLARY MESOTHERAPY: It is an aesthetic treatment in which small subcutaneous injections made up of vitamins , amino acids and synthetic growth factors directly on the scalp, these microinjections seek to nourish and activate hair tissues and cells, as well as to strengthen hair in its anagen stage avoiding hair weakening and increasing growth.
Benefits of hair mesotherapy :
- Nourishes the scalp thanks to its vitamins
- Causes hair regeneration
- Strengthens hair
- Stimulates growth
- Increases hair thickness
- Provides shine and vitality to hair
- Prevents hair loss
The hair mesotherapy It does not cause serious side effects, the patient sometimes experiences a little burning, itching, redness and inflammation that will diminish until disappearing hours after the procedure.
Among the results of the hair mesotherapy are the growth, strengthening and vitality of the hair. After concluding the sessions of hair mesotherapy , the patient will show positive changes in the scalp, as well as in the hair.
The hair mesotherapy prices vary taking into account the clinic and the mesotherapy sessions to be performed, in Total Hair we offer very affordable prices and with a specialized medical team.
- CAPILLARY PLASMA: The capillary plasma or rich plasma in platelets is a technique that consists of the treatment of cells and growth factors extracted from the patient’s blood by performing a centrifugation process that manages to separate and extract the blood from the platelet rich plasma to later be applied to the scalp through small injections.
Benefits of capillary plasma :
- Regenerates and strengthens the hair follicle
- Stimulates growth
- Restores the scalp
- Reduces dandruff
- Decreases hair loss
Treatment with platelet rich plasma works in the prevention and control of hair loss thanks to its growth factors.
- CAPILLARY GYMNASTICS: The hair gymnastics is a treatment that consists of stimulating the scalp through hair massages that can be performed manually or with cosmetic equipment to reactivate the blood circulation of the scalp and stimulate the strengthening of the hair follicle. The tratment of hair gymnastics It can be accompanied by medications for topical use that are applied to the scalp and through capillary massages, it is sought to cause the total absorption of the product, achieving a faster and more beneficial result for the patient.
Techniques of the hair gymnastics :
- Relieving massage
- High frequency
- To be
Among the benefits of performing a treatment of hair gymnastics it’s found:
- Increases blood circulation: Thanks to this procedure, blood circulation is activated, oxygenation is increased and it allows the nutrients applied to the scalp to reach the capillary tissues, causing their strengthening and hair growth.
- Normalizes the sebaceous glands : Hair loss can be caused by an irregularity of excess oil in the hair. By producing more fat than necessary, the follicles become clogged and obstruct normal hair development, causing early hair loss. Through the massages of hair gymnastics , excess oil is removed from the hair, production is regulated and the process is normalized.
- Hair growth: The most anticipated and visible benefit of treatment with hair gymnastics It is the decrease in hair loss and growth obtained.
The treatment, the intensity and the equipment to be used can vary in the patient according to the need, taking into account the diagnosis issued by the specialist.
ULTIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR BALDNESS OR ALOPECIA
As has been mentioned throughout this post about alopecia or hair loss, the cases of alopecia are diverse according to their types and therefore the corrective or preventive treatments will depend on the type of alopecia that is diagnosed.
In the case of non-scarring alopecia (androgenic, diffuse, traumatic alopecia), the definitive solution is recommended hair implant In the areas affected by baldness, this procedure consists of the extraction of healthy follicles from a donor area of the same patient, which will be implanted in the areas affected by alopecia. This new hair implant will be accompanied by complementary aesthetic treatments such as hair mesotherapy , capillary plasma or hair gymnastics , which will allow the follicle to strengthen and adapt to the implant area, producing a new healthy and strong hair.